the results of this systematic review show that the incidence of common injuries among volleyball players is high, mainly due to the nature of the sport. it is estimated that about 50% of all volleyball injuries are of the upper extremities, mainly the upper limbs, while about 10% are of the lower extremities, mainly the lower limbs (i.a.k.m. achterberg, 2005 ).
prevention programmes targeted at volleyball players should ideally be based on the evidence that is currently available. in order to do so, there is a need for a rigorous and systematic approach to analyse the incidence and aetiology of musculoskeletal injuries in volleyball. currently, there are no high quality studies that have specifically examined the incidence and aetiology of musculoskeletal injuries in volleyball players.
volleyball is a sport with a high incidence of acute musculoskeletal injuries. the incidence of volleyball injuries is higher than that of other sports and the most commonly injured body regions are the lower and upper extremities. the incidence of volleyball injuries has increased over the past few years. this increase is associated with the worldwide increase in participation in volleyball. the most common types of volleyball injuries are overuse injuries. the percentage of volleyball injuries that are overuse injuries is higher than that of other sports. the most commonly injured body regions are the lower and upper extremities. most volleyball injuries are caused by a lack of adequate warm-up and training and other injury-producing factors, such as tackling and falling on the ground, and improper surface conditions. this review shows that there is a lack of integral measures aiming to prevent multiple (location and type) injuries among volleyball players, which is contradictory to the growing body of scientific evidence that we have on integral programmes being embedded in the warming-up period. the most effective methods to prevent volleyball injuries are warm-up, balance and strength training, and functional training. the fifa11+ is based on several exercises that are embedded within the warming-up period. several randomised controlled trials have shown that the fifa11+ was effective in reducing the occurrence of overall and lower-limb injury rates among both young and adult footballers.